The kidneys are two bean shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right side of the spine, below the ribs qmd behind the belly. Each kidney is about 4 or 5 inches long, and has a convex and concave border.


They receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and blood exits through the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a URETER, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, and each kidney has around a million tiny filters called NEPHRONS.

A nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney just like the body cell. Studies have shown that human adult kidney contains about one million nephrons.

The main function of the kidney is to filter blood. Other functions are:

  1. Remove waste
  2. Control the body’s fluid balance
  3. Keeps the right levels of electrolytes
  4. Remove toxins
  5. In charge of acid-base balance


There are three processes of urine formation….

Ultrafiltration:- it occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule in kidneys. Here, one-fifth of the blood volumevolume that enters the kidney is filtered. Blood flows into the glomerulus through the afferent arterioles and leaves through the efferent arterioles

The process by which solute-free substancsubstances are reabsorbed is known as SELECTIVE REABSORPTION.Substances like water, sodium glucose etcetera

Hormonal secretion:- Hydrogen, ammonium, uric acid etcetera, re secreted. Wastes get turned into urine, which collects in the kidney’s pelvis that drains down to URETER to the BLADDER…

Check back for the ways of maintaining the kidney.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *